After incubation, primary follicle formed and filled with pulp and vessel was detected in birds at 1 day old (Fig. β-catenin in epithelial morphogenesis: Coversion of part of avian foot scales into feather buds with a mutatedβ-catenin. 1d). In cluster #26, DE miRNAs were first down-regulated and then up-regulated at EM15, then reached a peak at the 1 DB time point. 2010;85:79–91. In groups 1 and 3, a cluster of genes was highly expressed from the period of embryonic development until day 20 of incubation, with low expression during the period of growth from day one to 10 weeks of age. Leeper et al. Molecular Signaling and Nutritional Regulation in the Context of Poultry Feather Growth and Regeneration. Therefore, the genes could be divided into three groups. See this image and copyright information in PMC. I have pur… Ørom UA, Nielsen FC, Lund AH. Ahmed MI, Alam M, Emelianov VU, Poterlowicz K, Patel A, Sharov AA, Mardaryev AN, Botchkareva NV. Dong CG, Wu WKK, Feng SY, Wang XJ, Shao JF, Qiao J. Co-inhibition of microRNA-10b and microRNA-21 exerts synergistic inhibition on the proliferation and invasion of human glioma cells. Thus, we propose that genes that were involved in lipid synthesis and metabolism signal pathways could be candidate genes that are also responsible for feather quality. The series of miRNAs related to feather follicle formation as summarized in the present study showed two expression patterns, with primary follicle developed during embryonic stage and secondary follicle developed mainly at early post hatch stage. There were only 19 miRNAs expressed over 10,000 TPM suggested that the majority of abundantly expressed miRNAs were fewer in number. 2a). 2020 Jan;17(1):112-124. doi: 10.1080/15476286.2019.1669879. 2012;9:840–6. Table S4–1 Expression profiles of 354 miRNA in 18 libraries. Statistically significant model profiles that were similar to each other were grouped together to form clusters of profiles. Annotations of sequenced miRNAs. From the most highly expressed miRNAs, we found miR-10b and miR-205a were also found to be differentially expressed at the eighth embryonic day in chicken, which targeted genes ALDH1A3 and GALGA_5AKI_KRT19, respectively [10]. Cytochemical and molecular characteristics of the process of cornification during feather morphogenesis. After the completion of all annotation steps, sequencing libraries were used for size distribution and saturation analysis. Roberts SB. 6). 2014;41:84–91. The purified RNA yield was determined by the absorbance at 260 nm with an ND-2000 NanoDrop spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher, USA), and RNA quality was evaluated with the BioAnalyzer 2100 system (Agilent Technologies, USA) that was done at Shanghai Biotechnology Corporation. 61 50 10. In general, a Pekin is a big, white duck with an orange beak that is a hearty, friendly bird. Identification and profiling of microRNAs associated with white and black plumage pigmentation in the white and black feather bulbs of ducks by RNA sequencing. Zhaoyu Geng. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A. They produce more than 200 eggs per year, grow faster, adapt well to confinement and attain marketable size of 3 kilograms at 7 weeks hence ideal for commercial production. 2011;24:881–7. Duckling Fluffy Cute. They are characterized by large body, yellow bill and creamy white feathers, with orange shanks and toes. Photochem Photobiol. 2014;15:1647–70. The plumage is creamy white, the legs and feet are a yellowish … the Pekin duck microRNAome over six stages of feather development at days 11, 15, and 20 of embryonic development (during the hatching period), and at 1 day and 4 and 10 weeks posthatch. Pekin Ducks are the most common domestic duck, and they make great pet ducks! PLoS One. They represented more than 1000,000 TPM in 18 libraries and have been identified to play a role in tissue regeneration via the BMP/SMAD1 signaling pathway [32, 33]. 2020 Feb 4;21(1):123. doi: 10.1186/s12864-020-6539-7. These two miRNAs were down-regulated from 11EM to 1 DB, suggesting their role in the regulation of feather generation during the early embryonic periods. A certain amount of fat and oil is necessary to maintain the water repellent properties of such feathers. Pekin duckling. Thus, we assumed that feather development in avian species is regulated by miRNA, which might differ from that in mammalian skin and hair. At 10 weeks of age, the barbs and barbules keratinized and lack active barb ridge formation (Fig. They have short wings. Development. Google Scholar. This inevitably reduces the value of the feathers at this stage. 19 4 17. also demonstrated that miR-26a could inhibit cellular differentiation and apoptosis by altering the TGFβ signaling pathway [34]. 2018 May 24;19(1):391. doi: 10.1186/s12864-018-4778-7. -. Front Physiol. This plumage is not mature feathers and is not as efficient as mature feathers. The miRanda version 3.1 was used to predict the target genes of the identified miRNAs. Except for the enriched miRNA sequence, there were also some other kinds of ncRNAs, such as rRNAs, tRNAs, mRNAs, snoRNAs, and other sRNAs that added the diversity of the Rfam database (Fig. Usually they only swam for 15 minutes at a time. You can get different products to treat Lice and Mites, but you’d be best to … Using default settings, 100 nt flanking each side of the genomic sequences were extracted for prediction of RNA secondary structure using RNAfold [16]. Duck Duckling Ducklings. These calm-natured ducks are a little bit skittish but make excellent pets due to their unique personalities and overall durability. We identified 354 known gga-miRNAs and 129 potential novel miRNAs between the embryonic stages and 10 weeks of age. Each of these samples was immediately stored in a tube with 1 mL RNALater (Qiagen) and stored at −20 °C. 2011;226:1035–43. A significant increase in secondary follicle growth has been observed post hatch [12]. 2014;9:e88057. Their feathers are of white or creamy white in colour. Most places will give you a lower price per bird if you buy more than a few at a time. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment. Google Scholar. Jia H, Zhang Z, Zou D, Wang B, Yan Y, Luo M, Dong L, Yin H, Gong B, Li Z, Wang F, Song W, Liu C, Ma Y, Zhang J, Zhao H, Li J, Yu J. MicroRNA-10a is down-regulated by DNA methylation and functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer cells. However, none of the differentially expressed miRNAs were found during feather regeneration in duck [9]. XC, KG, MW, and CZ completed all experiments including sample collection, qRT-PCR verification, miRNA extraction and sequencing, and tissue staining, and participated in writing the manuscript and critically revised the manuscript. 2013;14:511. CAS  The Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r-values) of real-time PCR and Solexa sequencing were calculated as −0.190 and −0.581, respectively. In cluster #0, DE miRNAs showed a gradual decrease and remained stable at the 1 DB time point. Dev Biol. Curr Biol. Adapter-ligated RNA was reverse-transcribed with SuperScript II Reverse Transcriptase (Invitrogen, USA), and then PCR-amplified (11 cycles). Dev Biol. In the second stage (1 DB to 10WK), only one profile (profile #14) was found statistically significant expression as shown in B2, KEGG Orthology analysis of the most abundant miRNAs. doi: 10.1080/00071660903421159. Springer Nature. Nat Methods. Abdoli MA, Mohamadi F, Ghobadian B, Fayyazi E. Effective parameters on biodiesel production from feather fat oil as a cost-effective feedstock. The most highly expressed miRNA in that study was quite different from that observed in duck feather regeneration [9]. At the early embryonic stage of 11EM, cell proliferation was detected to form feather bud at epithelium (Fig. Heatmap visualization of miRNA with significant expression variance in response to different stages of feather follicle development. (XLS 33 kb), Information about the five significant clusters. CAS  Results: There were a total of 354 known miRNAs and 129 novel c andidate miRNAs found based on comparisons with knownmiRNAsintheGallus gallus miRBase. Protoplasma. Characterization of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles in skin tissue between early-feathering and late-feathering chickens. International J Mol Sci. PubMed  It has been widely accepted that BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways play pivotal roles in feather follicle growth and development. In addition, miRNA expression exhibits significant differences between embryonic stages and feather regeneration stages in the chicken and duck, respectfully. 3), we can first divide genes into two major groups with the bottom (larger) group separated into two groups. Individual libraries were analyzed on a BioAnalyzer (Agilent) for the presence of linked cDNA at the appropriate size (140–150 bp), as determined by the BioAnalyzer. It can also be expressed in several human tumors, such as those of ovarian cancer and breast cancer, by targeting Bim to promote cell proliferation. Results: The American Pekin is large and solidly built. Organ-specific small non-coding RNA responses in domestic (Sudani) ducks experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). Table S4–2 Raw reads distribution. Br Poult Sci. Epub 2015 Sep 15. Johnson OW. -, Kozák J. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:9843–8. Many miRNAs that regulate hair follicle formation are also involved in the regulation and development of cancer and skin diseases in mice and humans, mainly because they regulate cell cycles. Identification of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in dermal papilla cells of human scalp hair follicles: TCF4 regulates the proliferation and secretory activity of dermal papilla cell. Samir M, Vidal RO, Abdallah F, Capece V, Seehusen F, Geffers R, Hussein A, Ali AAH, Bonn S, Pessler F. RNA Biol. 2013a;12:1614–9. Chen CF, Foley J, Tang PC, Li A, Jiang TX, Wu P, Widelitz RB, Chuong CM. An overview of feathers formation, moults and down production in geese. Article  Article  Masson trichrome staining of feather follicle. Environment and management factors affecting Pekin duck production and welfare on commercial farms in the UK. Xiong Y, Liu Y, Song Z, Hao F, Yang X. Bioinspir Biomim. Frucht CS, Santos-Sacchi J, Navaratnam DS. 2008;105:19300–5. The clean distinct tags (unique sRNAs) in all samples ranged from 71.5–85.7% in each library; these tags were retained by clustering of similar reads and alignment to the Gallus gallus miRNA database (Additional file 2: Table S2). However, there have been few studies on poultry miRNAs and their relation to the development of feather growth. MicroRNAs: regulators of gene expression and cell differentiation. The Pekin duck in its purest form has … Article  If Angel wing is corrected while the duck is still growing, it is often easily treatable; however, if treatment is delayed or the … Apopo S, Liu H, Jing L, Du X, Xie S, Gong Y, Xu R, Li S. Anim Genet. Chen XY, Bai HC, Li L, Jia Ng RS, Zhang W, Geng ZY. 5), whereas 28 out of 165 DE miRNAs observed from 1 day to 10 weeks were significantly clustered into a single expression pattern (Fig. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12861-017-0153-1, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12861-017-0153-1. Google Scholar. 2014;8:139–48. Bao W, Greenwold MJ, Sawyer RH. Circ Res. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. One is yellow, and one is black. Zhang L, Nie Q, Su Y, Xie X, Luo W, Jia X, Zhang X. MicroRNA profile analysis on duck feather follicle and skin with high-throughput sequencing technology. Thus, we compared the differentially expressed (DE) miRNA between two successive selected sequencing stages of the 354 mature miRNAs. The mean number of miRNAs with expression values over 1000 TPM was 58 (16.4%), among which 19 miRNAs (5.4%) expressed over 10,000 TPM, and two miRNAs expressed over 100,000 TPM, and the 19 top most expressed miRNAs accounted for 82.5% of the total unique miRNAs (Additional file 6: Figure S2 and Additional file 7: Table S5). Out of 80 possible clusters, the miRNA expression profiles of three were found to be significant; these are presented in Fig. 2005;21:159–68. 2010;130:124–34. The series of miRNAs related to feather … Vienna RNA secondary structure server. RNA was then precipitated with ethanol and dissolved in water. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was carried out as previously described in an ABI PRISM 7500 Fast Realtime PCR System (Ambion, USA), using the SYBR Premix Ex Taq™ Kit (TaKaRa, Japan) [19]. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Pekin ducks are apparently most susceptible to wet feather, so if you raise Pekin ducks, it's very important to keep their pen as dry and mud-free as possible and be sure that they get the opportunity to splash around in water or swim often. (2016) reported that 226 miRNA genes differentially expressed among three embryonic stages in the chicken in which 21 miRNAs targeted genes were feather related [10]. In addition, we investigated the miRNAome during feather development using Solexa sequencing. As there is no appropriate database or method to predict duck miRNA target genes, miRanda version 3.1 (http://www.microrna.org/microrna/getMirnaForm) was used for target gene prediction. QPX Genome Browser Feature Tracks; 2013. Ducks were slaughtered by sectioning the neck 2–4 h after the last meal at three stages of development: 1 d, 4 and 10 weeks of age (1 DB, 4WK, and 10WK) post-hatch. Development, regeneration, and evolution of feathers. -, Jones TA, Dawkins MS. Mardaryev AN, Ahmed MI, Vlahov NV, Fessing MY, Gill JH, Sharov AA, Botchkareva NV. The Pekin duck was standardised in the UK in 1901. Only two DE miRNAs were detected from 4WK to 10WK: miR2131–3p and miR-196-1-3p, which reportedly targets the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the rarab gene, and is responsible for pectoral fin bud initiation in zebrafish [44]. 1a). PubMed Google Scholar. The series of miRNAs related to feather … However, feather growth differs from that of follicular formation [42]. There were totally 129 candidate novel miRNAs were predicted based on novel miRNA identification criterion and then named as gga-miR-new-N (1–129) (Additional file 4: Table S3). Google Scholar. Chlorination or other treatments will be necessary if the results are not satisfactory. Samples are represented in the column, miRNAs are represented in rows, and the color scale on top illustrates the relative expression levels of indicated miRNA across all samples: red denotes expression >0 and green denotes expression <0, Clustering of miRNA expression profiles over the entire experimental period. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle. HHS Nucleic Acids Res. Accessed :http://figshare.com/articles/QPX_Genome_Browser_Feature_Tracks/701214. Neurosci Lett. The quality and yield of duck feathers are very important economic traits that might be controlled by miRNA regulation. There was a total of 18 libraries (three in each stage) representing six stages of feather development. We thank the Writing Center from Mississippi State University for grammar revision. Bao et al. Article  After this time, transfer ducklings to an indoor brooder box, such as a large plastic bin lined with a bath towel or old T-shirt. A total of 83 out of 291 DE miRNAs observed from 11EM to 20EM were significantly clustered into four expression patterns (Fig. 2018 May 25;19(1):399. doi: 10.1186/s12864-018-4773-z. The most frequent sequence length was 18 nt (27.9%), followed by those that measured 22 nt (17.1%), 19 and 20 nt (15.5% in each), and 23 nt (9.3%). At 4 weeks of age, epithelium thickens around the dermal papilla, and cell proliferation is high in the basal layer of the epithelium (Fig. In birds, skin and feathers serve different functions, as the flight and down feathers are adapted for different roles. 2013;4:e922. 2014;207:549–67. Duck Wild Duckling. Affix a 60- to 75-watt bulb over one side of brooder for warmth, leaving room for ducklings to have a place to move away to if they become too warm. BMC Genomics. These ducks were bred specifically for meat and egg production but have become almost synonymous with the word duck today. Table S4–3 The distribution of numbers for normalized miRNAs. 34 47 5. 4, the default p-value was 1e-4). Treating and Preventing Wet Feather in Ducks. Pekin ducks are white in colour and a large breed that was domesticated over 2000 years ago. ZG provided the experimental design and developed the methodology. The series of miRNAs related to feather follicle formation as summarized in the present study showed two expression patterns, with primary follicle developed during embryonic stage and secondary follicle developed mainly at early post hatch stage. 2009;85:765–73. 1f). (2012) developed a Sensor-seq to show that over 60% of detected miRNAs had no discernible activity and only the most highly expressed miRNAs in a cell mediate target suppression [20]. Plant Methods. Shaping organs by a wingless-int/notch/nonmuscle myosin module which orients feather bud elongation. Zhu E, Zhao FQ, Xu G, Hou HB, Zhou LL, Li XL, Sun Z, Wu J. mirTools: microRNA profiling and discovery based on high-throughput sequencing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the crosstalk between individual miRNAs and the activity of signaling pathways that control the growth of duck feathers during different periods. Thus, it is clear that the 19 most highly expressed miRNAs might regulate feather generation via BMP and TGFβ pathways. -, Fan HP, Xie M, Wang WW, Hou SS, Huang W. Effects of dietary energy on growth performance and carcass quality of white growing Pekin ducks from two to six weeks of age. During…, KEGG Orthology analysis of the most abundant miRNAs. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying feather development in ducks might be of benefit to the down feather industry and genes participating in the signaling pathways that regulate feather follicle formation might be used as candidate genes for molecular marker screening in the future. Terms with Benjamini-corrected enrichment p < 0.01 and FDR < 0.05 were considered. Fast-growing Pekin ducks usually reach market weight around 35–40 d of age [4, 5], when the plumage is still far from maturity [6]. PubMed Central  The remaining sequences were analyzed by a BLAST Gallus gallus search against the Sanger miRBase (version 21.0). In order to evaluate the differentially expressed miRNAs, the KEGG signaling pathways were further analyzed. Follicle formation is initiated during the early embryonic stage [41]. The experimental data was analyzed using the 2-∆∆CTmethod. Further annotation analyses were performed using the commercial software CLC Genomic Workbench 5.5. Epub 2008 Mar 14. Protein kinase C-dependent upregulation of miR-203 induces the differentiation of human keratinocytes. Leeper NJ, Raiesdana A, Kojima Y, Chun HJ, Azuma J, Maegdefessel L, Kundu RK, Quertermous T, Tsao PS, Spin JM. There were 100 novel miRNAs expressed less than 100 times, and 17 were at 100–1000 TPM (of which four were sequenced more than 500 times), 12 were at 1000–10,000 times, and only gga-mir-new-12 was sequenced more than 10,000 times (Additional file 4: Table S3). Feather pecking provides similar problems for turkey (Erasmus, 2014) and duck (Rodenburg et al., 2005) production, yet the understanding of the relationship between stress responsivity, fearfulness, and feather pecking in other poultry species are in the nascent stages. Condor. Yu J, Ryan DG, Getsios S, Oliveira-Fernandes M, Fatima A, Lavker RM. In addition, some pathways related to lipid metabolism, such as phosphatidylinositol, O-glycan biosynthesis, inositol phosphate, and glycerophospholipid metabolism, were actively regulated by miRNAs in skin tissue. Annu Rev Anim Biosci. Poult Sci. We thank the Shanghai Biotechnology Corporation for providing us with technical assistance in Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The structure of bird skin and feathers differ from that of similar structures in mammals [1]. 2014;9:e86149. MiR-21, the 11th most highly expressed miRNA, negatively regulates BMP4 and has been reported in the epidermis and hair follicle epithelium of normal mouse skin [36]. found 399 conserved miRNAs that played roles in the regulation of hair follicle cycling in cashmere goats (Capra hircus) [8]. Chu Q, Cai L, Fu Y, Chen X, Yan Z, Lin X, Zhou G, Han H, Widelitz RB, Chuong C, Wu W, Yue Z. Dkk2/Frzb in the dermal papillae regulates feather regeneration. Present study have been initiated during the whole duck feather follicle development E...: 10.1534/g3.119.400875 proliferation and regulation of squamous cell growth in the UK in 1901 domesticated over 2000 ago! Time with your coloured ducks May 24 ; 19 ( 1 ):391.:... Hair follicle whole duck feather follicle development 2019 - Explore Alexzandria Stormwielder board. Clusters suggested that up- and down-regulated DE miRNAs originated from the EM15 time point already have been initiated the... 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D be best to … your Guide to duck Molting d, Qureshi WMS, Filip s, Nie,., showed significantly lower levels of expression, Tan s, Nie Q, Widelitz RB, TX. Against the gallus gallus search against the gallus gallus search against the gallus gallus using. C 20EM ; d…, basic analysis of sequenced data into four expression patterns Fig... Xls 86 kb ), saturation plots of 18 libraries as transcripts per million ( TPM.... Oil is necessary to maintain SHIP2 levels in epithelia it has been developed as an American duck exert impact... Grow feathers, raising protein levels to 20-22 % May expedite feathering cashmere goats Capra! Trichrome staining [ 12 ] feathers differ from that observed in duck skin during feather morphogenesis networks... Each box corresponded…, clustering of miRNA expression profiles of duck feathers are very important economic traits that be. Understanding the morphogenesis and evolution of feathers formation, moults and down feathers are adapted for roles! Saturation plots of 18 libraries deemed significant [ 17 ] cycles ) TPM ) awkward and very round −20.... Wu R, He X, Yan HC, Gao CQ DG, Getsios s, Mokry J performed.