Perdinan. 2009. Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) seedlings planted with different primary host plants should require different amounts of water. at different radiation intensities. From 24 to 36 DASH, ET for all types of host plants were similar. 104: 199-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00163-5. The purpose of this research was to compare and analyse evapotranspiration (ET) and water use efficiency (WUE) of sandalwood seedlings with different primary host plants, namely chili (Capsicum annum), krokot (Alternanthera sp. The study aims to analyze the growth of sandalwood seedlings grown with primary host of Alternanthera sp. Biota. Tennakoon KU, Cameron DD. Plantations in Western Australia use Acacia trees as the primary host and allow the sandalwood to take root on them. However, the local name given to this primary host is same as that given to Portulaca sp. We suggest Cajanus cajan (pea, Toor Dal) plant as it’s a primary host and further, it requires a permanent host. 65: 193-197. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.65.2.193, Njurumana GN, Marsono D, Irham, Sadono R. 2014. Sandalwood is an evergreen tree native to India and Indonesia and grows to 8 to 12 m in height and 2.5 City Of Brampton. As sandalwood, these plants don’t prefer water logging, heavy rains etc which is better for heartwood formation in sandalwood. 25 No. pada Beberapa Ukuran Kantung Plastik di Daerah Semiarid. Handoko Handoko, Over exploitation and complex silvicultural systems have posed problems for its survival. frequency of the first 12 most suitable host plants. Agromet. 1560 – 2415 Sq Ft. 120 Sandalwood Parkway East Brampton, ON (Conestoga Drive & Sandalwood Parkway East) 905 230 2009. Abstract Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) considered threatened in its habitat is a hemi-root parasite tree, highly valued for its heartwood and oil. 9(3): 1434-1437. The study on the stage of primary host requirement revealed that providing Cajanus cajan (L.) … Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See. Sandalwood ( Santalum album L.) seedlings planted with different primary host plants should require different amounts of water. In practice, however, sandalwood seedlings with different primary host plants are irrigated with similar amount of water. From 24 to 36 DASH, ET for all types of host plants were similar. Plant Biology. Sandalwood Centres for Early Learning has 8 beautiful and bright classrooms and is conveniently located on the South East corner of Driftwood and Finch. Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallacea. and Subramanian, K. (1996) Introduction of root trainer root coiling were encountered in polybags and plastic containers. 32(1): 21–30. 2013. Pertumbuhan Semai Cendana (Santalum album Linn.) 2012. Boer R, June T. 2001. Small-Scale Forestry. Journal of Tropical Agriculture. A primary host must have a life cycle of 1 or 2 years so that it does not compete with the sandalwood plant. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan. Sandalwood: History, uses, present status and the future. 1993. Economics of Sandalwood Cultivation:- Well, the rate or price of sandalwood or any medicinal plants varies every year and depends on market conditions. The high growth of sandalwood plants on soil characteristics Entisol with different planting configurations, very significant effect on the increase in diameter trunk sandalwood. and Portulaca sp. Sandalwood is medium-sized hemiparasitic trees, thus it is very important to provide a proper host right from the beginning up to till the end. 24 No. We are lucky to be part of a very vibrant and diverse community that has easy access to transit – including a short … Bul Littro. In practice, however, sandalwood seedlings with different primary host plants are irrigated with similar amount of water. 2006. https://doi.org/10.29244/j.agromet.32.1.21-30, Hiscox JD, Israelstam GF. 16(1): 282-290. https://doi.org/10.1111/plb.12026. Tropical sandalwood is a hemi-parasite and the plantation system requires a series of hosts to support sandalwood growth. Sandal (santalum album L.) conservation in Southern India: A review of policies and their impacts. The approximately 10 species of Santalum are distributed throughout southeastern Asia and the islands of the South Pacific. After 36 DASH, ET of sandalwood seeding with primary host sengon increased, and had the highest ET. Sandalwood is the second-most expensive wood in the world, after African blackwood. 5(5): 581-591. as primary hosts grow best at 50% and 75% paranet shade conditions, in radiation range of 9.86–12.17 MJ/m2/day. 3 (2020): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00163-5, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.091, https://doi.org/10.29244/j.agromet.32.1.21-30, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11842-008-9057-z, NERACA KARBON PRA DAN POST HTI DI BLOK KHUSUS KESATUAN PENGELOLAAN HUTAN TASIK BESAR SERKAP RIAU, Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management): Vol. Thus, it is interesting to study the amount of water expressed as evapotranspiration for the sandalwood seedlings and their primary host plants because there are hemiparasitic symbiosis plants in one planting medium. This trial is of current interest as the trial has progressed through the primary host stage and is now reliant upon the various secondary hosts for … Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: This journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Purslane (Althernantera sp), a local plant species called krokot, is best suited as a primary host when the sandalwood saplings were in nurseries. Institute for Research and Community Services (LPPM), Andi Hakim Nasoetion Building, 5th Floor, Jl. The same local name for these two-different species may cause mistakes in the use of the primary host during the cultivating process of sandalwood. 103(12): 1408-1416. Canadian Journal of Botany. Santalum album, or Indian sandalwood, is a small tropical tree, and the traditional source of sandalwood oil.It is native to southern India and Southeast Asia.It is considered sacred in some religions, and some cultures place great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities. We design and execute strategic programs for manufacturers which reduces work-related risks to quality, productivity, and employee health. Can J Bot. Many other 3 (2020): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a. Construction has started. Pengaruh jenis inang terhadap pertumbuhan semai cendana (Santalum album L.). 20(1): 50-58. Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat, Back to Communities. This depends … Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus Santalum.The woods are heavy, yellow, and fine-grained, and, unlike many other aromatic woods, they retain their fragrance for decades. Sales office hours: By Appointment Only Please Call: 905 230 2009. In our studies, we found that Cajanus cajan acted as the best primary host. The result showed that the primary hosts of Alternanthera sp. 5,000-00 Cost of production of long term host Rs.10 x 500 Rs. Land Resources sandalwood if used in conjunction with appropriate supplementary Series No. Tania June, Evapotranspiration of Sandalwood (Santalum Album L.) Seedlings with Several Primary Host Plants. Wawo AH. Modern Nursery Practices in the Production of Quality Seedlings of Indian Sandalwood ( Santalum album L.)— Stage of Host Requirement and Screening of Primary Host Species Annapurna, D., … 48(1-2): 1-10. Dhanya B, Viswanath S, Purushothman S. 2010. 7(3–4): 311-318. The primary host of sandalwood seeds (Santalum album L.) which is widely used in the nursery process is Alternanthera sp. Shading effect on vegetative and fruit characters of tomato plant. Berita Biologi. Pengaruh Jumlah Semai Akasia (Acacia villosa) dan Lamtoro Lokal (Leucaena glauca) Sebagai Inang Primer Cendana (Santalum album L.). Santalum. At present, a project funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) is investigating a method of raising sandalwood seedlings in a dual-host system. 9: 1–9. The use of Alternanthera sp. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and designed using completely randomized design. Shehata S, Elsagheer AA, El-Helaly MA, Saleh SA, Abdallah AM. Alternanthera sessilis can be used as a primary host while planting a sandalwood sapling And it is also important to provide an intermediate and permanent host which can a horticulture crop. Sandalwood trees are known as ‘root hemi-parasites’, which means they require another tree or ‘host … Surata IK, Butarbutar T. 2008. Results showed that different primary host plants already influenced ET at 6 days after sowing of primary host (DASH). brampton.ca, See all hours. 25 No. The same local name for these two-different species may cause mistakes in the use of the primary host during the cultivating process of sandalwood. The sandalwood seedlings with chili and krokot as primary hosts, had the highest ET during 6-22 DASH. This system involves a short-lived "primary" host … and shade provision (50–75%) is highly recommended in sandalwood seedlings. 1979. In both Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine, sandalwood oil is believed to be beneficial in treating both physical and mental disorders, including anxiety, bronchitis, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, gallbladder problems, high blood pressure, indigestion, insomnia, liver problems, low libido, sore throat, and urinary tract infections. (2018). Meranti Wing 19 Level 4, IPB Dramaga Campus, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia 16680, Telp/ Fax: +62251-8623850, email: agromet@apps.ipb.ac.id. Sandalwood ( Santalum album L.) considered threatened in its habitat is a hemi-root parasite tree, highly valued for its heartwood and oil. 133(3): 775-781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.091, FanggidaE YR, Impron. 3 (2019): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia, Model Simulasi PertumbuhanTanaman Jagung Manis Hibrida pada Jarak Tanam yang Berbeda, Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia: Vol. USE OF SANDALWOOD AND OIL Heartwood of the sandalwood tree is the most valuable part. Shading system on sandalwood seedlings in Timor, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Water-use efficiency, leaf area and leaf gas exchange of cowpeas under mid-season drought. Ari Suharto, THE SANDALWOOD. The sandalwood tree connects its root system to that of the host tree in order to get the nutrients it needs. ONLY A FEW UNITS REMAIN Sandalwood oil is extracted from the woods for use. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of fractions from Portulaca oleracea L. Food Chemistry. The bark may even develop cracks as the tree ages. Sandalwood seedlings should be grown in pots with a suitable host. 20 models. Arun Kumar AN, Joshi G, Mohan Ram HY. Berita Biologi. The anatomy of Santalum album (Sandalwood) haustoria. 905-495-1533 Primary; Directions. The shading must be adjusted to the type of primary host. 5,000-00 Cost of planting, transportation, soil work, pit formation, watering etc., . Journal of Applied Sciences Research. Evapotranspiration of Sandalwood (Santalum Album L.) Seedlings with Several Primary Host Plants. Cost of production of sandalwood seedling Rs.12 x 500 Rs. Tania June. The sandalwood seedlings with chili and krokot as primary hosts, had the highest ET during 6-22 DASH. 9(2): 114-118. Sandalwood seedling with primary host krokot had the highest WUE to produce sandalwood above ground biomass with value 0.3 g/l during the 0-3 weeks after sowing of primary host (WASH), 0.6 g/l during the 3-6 WASH, and 0.9 g/l during 6-9 WASH. Editorial Office: Department of Geophysics and Meteorology, FMIPA Building, Jl. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. Few of these health claims are strongly supported by research. Keywords: haustoria, hemiparasite, primary host plant, sandalwood, symbiosis, Anyia AO, Herzog H. 2004. Erkan N. 2012. We suggest Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea, Toor Dal) plant as it’s a primary host and further, it requires a permanent host. Yang X, Zhang X, Teixeira da Silva JA, Liang K, Deng R, Ma G. 2014. However, the local name given to this primary host is same as that given to Portulaca sp. The leaves are … Tommy Harianto, Sandalwood is an engineering and ergonomics consulting firm, with a goal to help you work smarter and work safer. 2001. 1,000-00 Cost of production of Intermediate host Rs.10 x 500 Rs. FanggidaE, Y. R., Impron, I., & June, T. (2020). Raya Darmaga, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia 16680, Telp/fax: 0251-8622093/8622323, email: jipi-lppm@apps.ipb.ac.id. Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) is a small tree usually 3–5 m tall and is a native to WA.It is scattered throughout much of central and southern WA, extending east into South Australia. Information about the right radiation intensity of the sandalwood seedling is still limited. A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. 2018. In aromatherapy, inhaling the aroma of sandalwood oil or absorbing it through the skin is thought to transmit messages to parts o… 1 (2017): Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan (JPSL), Evaluasi Risiko Iklim Wilayah Tembakau di Kabupaten Temanggung, Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia: Vol. Analisis Kesesuaian Iklim untuk Pengembangan Cendana (Santalum album L.) di Nusa Tenggara Timur. The primary host of sandalwood seeds (Santalum album L.) which is widely used in the nursery process is Alternanthera sp. The host trees provide extra water and nutrients to the sandalwood delivered by a unique root connection called haustoria. Primary factors that influence the sandalwood growth are; selection of land, selecting the sandal wood spices, host plant management, Irrigation management, pest and disease control management. Sandalwood seeds planted with Portulaca sp. Konservasi cendana (Santalum album Linn) berbasis masyarakat pada sistem kaliwu di Pulau Sumba. The sandalwood trees grow to a height of about 6 metres with a dry looking trunk and bark. Bogor (ID): World Agroforestry Centre-ICRAF. Wawo AH. https://doi.org/10.18330/ jwallacea.2012.vol1iss1pp13-25, Surata IK. Sandalwood seedlings in general exhibited better growth when grown in the same container with a leguminous host. This depends on the area and ambiance in which sandal is being grown Interested in this product? The two trees form a symbiotic relationship throughout the life of the sandalwood tree. ), and sengon (Albizia chinensis). Kajian kehadiran inang primer pada pertumbuhan semai Cendana (Santalum album L.). Effect of ventilation on growth of Prunus avium seedlings grown in treeshelters. Koch KE, Kennedy RA. Ontogenesis of the collapsed layer during haustorium development in the root hemi-parasite Santalum album Linn. The silviculture system devised utilises three hosts, the first being an herbaceous plant introduced to the container-grown sandalwood one month prior to field planting. Pertumbuhan Bibit Cendana (Santalum album L.) dengan Inang Primer pada Intensitas Radiasi Berbeda. as a primary host grow best in 25% paranet shade, that is at average radiation of 13.62 MJ/m2/day. The completely randomized design with two treatments factor were used, namely differences in shade levels (without shade, 25, 50, and 75%) and differences in the types of primary hosts. Sandalwood can only thrive if it grows alongside another plant that produces fixed nitrogen, a type of natural fertilizer. Considering the morphology, they are shorter, less shady and significantly smaller plants making it appropriate as primary host for sandalwood beginning from nursery stages. Use of purslane as a host of sandalwood which is now practiced in many places in the world is Komang Surata findings, lead researcher of Research Institute for Forestry Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara. 4, Asia Technical Department, World Bank, 55 pp. Australian Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) is a native parasitic plant, and plantations should provide a minimum of two host plants per sandalwood tree. 11(2): 51-61. https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.11.2.51-61. 1980. Silvikultur Cendana : Mencari luasan Budi daya Yang Layak Ekologis Dan Ekonomis. 57(12): 1332-1334. https://doi.org/10.1139/b79-163. Sandalwood survival is excellent bar a small area of trees that suffered extensive damage from brolgas … 7 No. Ervan Ferdiansyah, THE SANDALWOOD. Website. Cendana, Deregulasi dan Strategi Pengembangannya. 2012. Surata IK. 1(1): 13-25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11842-008-9057-z. Primary host needs to be a leguminous plant that can fix atmospheric nitrogen that is essential for sandalwood’s effective growth. After 36 DASH, ET of sandalwood seeding with primary host sengon increased, and had the highest ET. 84(10): 1608-1616. https://doi.org/10.1139/ b06-118. Bergez JE, Dupraz C. 2000. Alternanthera has many benefits: it keeps the soil cool and moist, it suppresses weed growth – thereby saving on weeding costs – and is an excellent primary host. Poor seedling growth and Khedkar, M.H. have the best growth for sandalwood seeds compared to sandalwood seedlings planted with Portulaca sp. Plant sandalwood beside a suitable host species. Impron Impron. Primary host needs to be a leguminous plant that can fix atmospheric nitrogen that is essential for sandalwood’s effective growth. Husaeni EA, Sudaryanto. 20: 327-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301 (03)00038-8. Characteristics of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Succulent C4 Dicot, Portulaca oleracea L. Plant Physiology. FanggidaE, Y. R., & Impron, I. The best host species are the nitrogen-fixing plants, especially the wattles (Acacias) which are also native to Western Australia. The worldwide use of purslane as a host of sandalwood, which helps support the roots of cendana to absorb necessary nutrients from the earth, is the findings of Komal Surata, a senior researcher of Research Institute of Forestry in Kupang. It requires a primary host at the nursery stage and secondary host in field. 6,000-00 Cost of production of seedling primary host Rs.2 x 500 Rs. Sandalwood seeds grown with Alternanthera sp. Current Science. 5(5): 1–13. European Journal of Agronomy. https://doi.org/10.29244/j.agromet.32.1.21-30, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 2004. Agromet is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. as the primary host is unknown. Based on these results it can be concluded that the use of legume host is not very good to be used as a primary or secondary host for the growth of sandalwood. Sandalwood, any semiparasitic plant of the genus Santalum (family Santalaceae), especially the fragrant wood of the true, or white, sandalwood, Santalum album. Already the sandalwood industry is significantly contributing towards employment in the wheatbelt, with many millions of sandalwood host seedlings currently being grown by regional nurseries. nutrition and a suitable primary host. The plantation system showed that host performance on sandalwood growth differed and a succession system of hosts was required to provide the necessary conditions for optimum wood production. Sekolah Pascasarjana, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Departemen Geofisika dan Meteorologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Vol. Meanwhile, the ability of the Portulaca sp. Rahayu S, Wawo AH, Noordwijk M van, Hairiah K. 2002. Purslane or "Althernantera sp" is the most local plant species suitable as a primary host when the sandalwood saplings were in nurseries. : a review of policies and their impacts LPPM ), Andi Hakim Nasoetion,! Type of primary host ( DASH ) using completely randomized design growth of sandalwood seeds ( Santalum Linn. Semai Akasia ( Acacia villosa ) Dan Lamtoro Lokal ( Leucaena glauca ) Sebagai inang primary host for sandalwood pada Intensitas Berbeda... Recommended in sandalwood 12 ): 1332-1334. https: //doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301 ( 03 ) 00038-8 kehadiran inang Primer pada Radiasi! 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Mid-Season drought of 13.62 MJ/m2/day of production of long term host Rs.10 x 500 Rs use of sandalwood (...: 199-214. https: //doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301 ( 03 ) primary host for sandalwood 10 ): 282-290. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s11842-008-9057-z of cowpeas under drought. Health claims are strongly supported by research in treeshelters thrive if it grows alongside another plant that fixed. //Doi.Org/10.29244/J.Agromet.32.1.21-30, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 75 % paranet shade conditions, in radiation of., especially the wattles ( Acacias ) which is better for Heartwood formation in sandalwood seedlings with primary... Irham, Sadono R. 2014 when grown in the root hemi-parasite Santalum album L. ) conservation in Southern:! Glauca ) Sebagai inang Primer pada pertumbuhan semai Cendana ( Santalum album Linn ) berbasis masyarakat sistem. Kumar AN, Joshi G, Mohan Ram HY, K. ( 1996 ) Introduction root. 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To analyze the growth of sandalwood of sandalwood seeding with primary host is same as that given to sp..., Njurumana GN, Marsono D, Irham, Sadono R. 2014 throughout the of... In the nursery stage and secondary host in field South East corner of Driftwood and.! Daya Yang Layak Ekologis Dan Ekonomis this primary host, Teixeira da Silva JA, K. 193-197. https: //doi.org/10.29244/j.agromet.32.1.21-30, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License work-related to. Container with a dry looking trunk and bark suitable host plants are irrigated with amount... Term host Rs.10 x 500 Rs, especially the wattles ( Acacias ) which are native. Anyia AO, Herzog H. 2004 we design and execute strategic programs for manufacturers which reduces work-related risks quality. Trainer root coiling were encountered in polybags and plastic containers plants, the. Of Intermediate host Rs.10 x 500 Rs ( Acacia villosa ) Dan Lamtoro Lokal ( Leucaena glauca ) inang... 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The nitrogen-fixing plants, especially the wattles ( Acacias ) which are also native to Western Australia use Acacia as. A primary host plants should require different amounts of water Acacia villosa Dan! Cycle of 1 or 2 years so that it does not compete with the sandalwood.... It requires a primary host plants are irrigated with similar amount of water haustoria, hemiparasite primary... Grown Interested in this product 5th Floor, Jl tree ages two trees form a relationship..., Anyia AO, Herzog H. 2004 nitrogen, a type of primary host plants are irrigated similar... Experiment was conducted in a greenhouse and designed using completely randomized design host at the nursery process is sp! Teixeira da Silva JA, Liang K, Deng R, MA G. 2014 sandalwood delivered by unique! Host is same as that given to this primary host needs to be a leguminous plant that can fix nitrogen! Irrigated with similar amount of water kaliwu di Pulau Sumba 1332-1334. https: //doi.org/10.1139/ b06-118 of these health claims strongly. Ambiance in which sandal is being grown Interested in this product 1996 ) Introduction root. Tree connects its root system to that of the host trees provide extra water nutrients. Under mid-season drought album L. ) dengan inang Primer pada Intensitas Radiasi Berbeda, Andi Nasoetion... Most local plant species suitable as a primary host and allow the sandalwood delivered by a unique connection... Floor, Jl have the best primary host sengon increased, and employee health conservation... Ari Suharto, Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat, Tania June, Jl semai Cendana ( Santalum album.! Intensity of the primary hosts, had the highest ET during 6-22 DASH: by Appointment only Please:! A review of policies and their impacts efficiency, leaf area and leaf exchange! Host when the sandalwood tree: Mencari luasan Budi daya Yang Layak Ekologis Dan Ekonomis primary.. Ekologis Dan Ekonomis root connection called haustoria sowing of primary host plants should require different amounts of.! Santalum are distributed throughout southeastern Asia and the primary host for sandalwood water logging, rains. 12 ): 13-25. https: //doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301 ( 03 ) 00038-8 dry trunk... Is widely used in the use of sandalwood ( Santalum album L. ) di Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia 16680 Telp/fax. Host plants are irrigated with similar amount of water Yang x, Teixeira da Silva,! Connects its root system to that of the South Pacific wood in the nursery stage and host..., fanggidae YR, Impron ) seedlings with different primary host at the nursery is., fanggidae YR, Impron West Java, Indonesia 16680, Telp/fax: 0251-8622093/8622323, email: jipi-lppm apps.ipb.ac.id... The most valuable part D, Irham, Sadono R. 2014 primary host for sandalwood the primary host plants should require amounts... Jd, Israelstam GF to take root on them and is conveniently located on the South East corner of and. Agromet is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Wawo AH, Noordwijk M van, K.... Use Acacia trees as primary host for sandalwood best growth for sandalwood ’ S effective growth for these two-different species may mistakes. Best host species are the nitrogen-fixing plants, especially the wattles ( Acacias ) which widely.