On their arrival there, Messer Nicolas found that his wife was dead and that she had left behind her a son of fifteen years of age, whose name was Marco". [93] Many have questioned whether he had visited the places he mentioned in his itinerary, whether he had appropriated the accounts of his father and uncle or other travelers, and some doubted whether he even reached China, or that if he did, perhaps never went beyond Khanbaliq (Beijing). Venetian merchant and adventurer Marco Polo traveled from Europe to Asia from 1271 to 1295. [146] Not only did it contain maps of his journey, but also sea routes to Japan, Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula, the Bering Strait and even to the coastlines of Alaska, centuries before the rediscovery of the Americas by Europeans. To give more weight to this mission he sent with the Polos, as his legates, two Dominican fathers, Guglielmo of Tripoli and Nicola of Piacenza. vii, 214 pp. [37][39] After leaving the princess, the Polos travelled overland to Constantinople. He also noted that the only Persian source that mentions the princess was not completed until 1310–11, therefore Marco Polo could not have learned the information from any Persian book. D. Comparative specimens of the different recensions of Polo's text. Even Columbus, nearly 200 years later, often consulted his copy of 'The Book of Ser Marco Polo'. ↑ 1.0 1.1 Here Marco speaks of the remarkable population of the Andaman Islands--Oriental negroes in the lowest state of barbarism--who have remained in their isolated and degraded condition, so near the shores of great civilised countries, for so many ages. [9] Bento de Góis, inspired by Polo's writings of a Christian kingdom in the east, travelled 4,000 miles (6,400 km) in three years across Central Asia. [107] In this respect, Igor de Rachewiltz recalls that the claim that the three Polo were present at the siege of Xiang-yang is not present in all manuscripts, but Niccolò and Matteo could have made this suggestion. The bookof Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian concerning the kingdoms and marvels of the East 3d ed., rev. [132][133], A number of errors in Marco Polo's account have been noted: for example, he described the bridge later known as Marco Polo Bridge as having twenty-four arches instead of eleven or thirteen. Marco Polo (1254 to January 8, 1324) was a Venetian explorer known for the book "The Travels of Marco Polo", which describes his voyage to and experiences in Asia. [29] The exact date of their arrival is unknown, but scholars estimate it to be between 1271 and 1275. For example, the opening introduction in The Book of Marvels to "emperors and kings, dukes and marquises" was lifted straight out of an Arthurian romance Rustichello had written several years earlier, and the account of the second meeting between Polo and Kublai Khan at the latter's court is almost the same as that of the arrival of Tristan at the court of King Arthur at Camelot in that same book. [116] Haw also argues in his book Marco Polo's China that Marco's account is much more correct and accurate than has often been supposed and that it is extremely unlikely that he could have obtained all the information in his book from second-hand sources. [150] Steingarten also mentioned that Jane Grigson believed the Marco Polo story to have originated in the 1920s or 30s in an advertisement for a Canadian spaghetti company. [28], Marco knew four languages, and the family had accumulated a great deal of knowledge and experience that was useful to Kublai. [27] His relation with a certain Marco Polo, who in 1300 was mentioned with riots against the aristocratic government, and escaped the death penalty, as well as riots from 1310 led by Bajamonte Tiepolo and Marco Querini, among whose rebels were Jacobello and Francesco Polo from another family branch, is unclear. In fact, Polo does not even imply that he had led 1,000 personnel. The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East [excerpts] Marco Polo, c. 1310-1320 Translated by Henry Yule. [44][45] ), He spent several months of his imprisonment dictating a detailed account of his travels to a fellow inmate, Rustichello da Pisa,[29] who incorporated tales of his own as well as other collected anecdotes and current affairs from China. [7] Around 1291, the Polos also offered to accompany the Mongol princess Kököchin to Persia; they arrived around 1293. "Grant Sire, nos avon avech nos en nostre mesnie homes qe firont tielz mangan qe giteront si grant pieres qe celes de la cité ne poront sofrir mes se renderont maintenant. Did Venetian trader and explorer MARCO POLO (1254-1324) actually reach the court of Kublai Khan, serve the emperor as his emissary, and journey the distant lands of Cathay for 17 years, as he relates in his Travels of Marco Polo? The Travels of Marco Polo Book Review: It was perhaps the first book to achieve best-seller status before the invention of the printing press-it was certainly the most controversial. [28][29] Niccolò and his brother Maffeo set off on a trading voyage before Marco's birth. Also in reply to Wood, Jørgen Jensen recalled the meeting of Marco Polo and Pietro d'Abano in the late 13th century. [108] Wood maintains that it is more probable that Polo only went to Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey) and some of the Italian merchant colonies around the Black Sea, picking hearsay from those travellers who had been farther east. [48] In 1300, he married Donata Badoèr, the daughter of Vitale Badoèr, a merchant. [81] The Italian scholar Luigi Foscolo Benedetto had previously demonstrated that the book was written in the same "leisurely, conversational style" that characterised Rustichello's other works, and that some passages in the book were taken verbatim or with minimal modifications from other writings by Rustichello. Elvin concludes that "those who doubted, although mistaken, were not always being casual or foolish", but "the case as a whole had now been closed": the book is, "in essence, authentic, and, when used with care, in broad terms to be trusted as a serious though obviously not always final, witness. Polo, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian, 27. The two-year voyage was a perilous one—of the six hundred people (not including the crew) in the convoy only eighteen had survived (including all three Polos). Marco Polo and his Description of the World. Rustichello wrote Devisement du Monde in Franco-Venetian. C. Calendar of documents relating to Marco Polo and his family. MP Italian merchant and explorer 1254 - 8 January 1324 Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images [72] After the brothers answered the questions he tasked them with delivering a letter to the Pope, requesting 100 Christians acquainted with the Seven Arts (grammar, rhetoric, logic, geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy). Marco Polo (1254 to January 8, 1324) was a Venetian explorer known for the book "The Travels of Marco Polo", which describes his voyage to and experiences in Asia. [30][29] In 1260, Niccolò and Maffeo, while residing in Constantinople, then the capital of the Latin Empire, foresaw a political change; they liquidated their assets into jewels and moved away. [134] Archaeologists have also pointed out that Polo may have mixed up the details from the two attempted invasions of Japan by Kublai Khan in 1274 and 1281. There is substantial literature based on Polo's writings; he also influenced European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map. [62][82], Latham also argued that Rustichello may have glamorised Polo's accounts, and added fantastic and romantic elements that made the book a bestseller. [20], However, since also his father Niccolò was nicknamed Milione,[21] 19th-century philologist Luigi Foscolo Benedetto was persuaded that Milione was a shortened version of Emilione, and that this nickname was used to distinguish Niccolò's and Marco's branch from other Polo families. [83] Latham believed that many elements of the book, such as legends of the Middle East and mentions of exotic marvels, may have been the work of Rustichello who was giving what medieval European readers expected to find in a travel book. This account of the Orient provided the Europeans with a clear picture of the East's geography and ethnic customs and was the first Western record of porcelain, coal, gunpowder, paper money, and some Asian plants and exotic animals. The Polo family, on that occasion, had expressed their regret at the long lack of a pope, because on their previous trip to China they had received a letter from Kublai Khan to the Pope, and had thus had to leave for China disappointed. [105], Sceptics have long wondered whether Marco Polo wrote his book based on hearsay, with some pointing to omissions about noteworthy practices and structures of China as well as the lack of details on some places in his book. London and New York: Routledge, 2006. Retrieved 2010-08-28, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 19:32. His wife, Donata, and his three daughters were appointed by him as co-executrices. He ardently studied maps and the work of other writers and explorers. [149] According to the newsletter of the National Macaroni Manufacturers Association[149] and food writer Jeffrey Steingarten,[150] the durum wheat was introduced by Arabs from Libya, during their rule over Sicily in the late 9th century, thus predating Marco Polo's travels by about four centuries. Marco Polo was born in 1254 in Venice, capital of the Venetian Republic. [145] The 1453 Fra Mauro map was said by Giovanni Battista Ramusio (disputed by historian/cartographer Piero Falchetta, in whose work the quote appears) to have been partially based on the one brought from Cathay by Marco Polo: That fine illuminated world map on parchment, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery [the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele di Murano] was by one of the brothers of the monastery, who took great delight in the study of cosmography, diligently drawn and copied from a most beautiful and very old nautical map and a world map that had been brought from Cathay by the most honourable Messer Marco Polo and his father. [67] The popular translation published by Penguin Books in 1958 by R. E. Latham works several texts together to make a readable whole. Venetian Explorer In 1298 a Venetian adventurer named Marco Polo wrote a fascinating book about his travels in the Far East. Like Polo, Columbus was a sailor and adventurer. They were received by the royal court of Kublai Khan, who was impressed by Marco's intelligence and humility. [27], In 1323, Polo was confined to bed, due to illness. Whitley Stokes, Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1890) Whitley Stokes, 'The Gaelic abridgement of the Book of Ser Marco Polo', Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 1 (1896–7) 245–73, 362–438; Whitley Stokes, 'Acallamh na Senórach', Irische Texte 4/1 (Leipzig 1900) [129], Haw explains how the earliest manuscripts of Polo's accounts provide contradicting information about his role in Yangzhou, with some stating he was just a simple resident, others stating he was a governor, and Ramusio's manuscript claiming he was simply holding that office as a temporary substitute for someone else, yet all the manuscripts concur that he worked as an esteemed emissary for the khan. POLO, MARCO, Venetian merchant and traveler (b.Venice or Curzola, 1254; d. Venice, 8 January 1324), whose travel accounts gained worldwide fame and whose description of the countries he visited between 1271 and 1298 represents a primary geographical and historical source concerning Asia during the Mongol domination. [122] In fact, in the 1960s the German historian Herbert Franke noted that all occurrences of Po-lo or Bolod (an Altaic word meaning "steel") in Yuan texts were names of people of Mongol or Turkic extraction. The Dominican father Francesco Pipino was the author of a translation into Latin, Iter Marci Pauli Veneti in 1302, just a few years after Marco's return to Venice. [nb 1] On reaching the Yuan court, the Polos presented the sacred oil from Jerusalem and the papal letters to their patron. Audio An illustration of a 3.5" floppy disk. Marco Polo is cited as an author, but Il Milione was supposedly written by Rustichello da Pisa based on Marco Polo's personal narration of his travels. Entrusted with the task of preparing a new Italian edition of Marco Polo, Benedetto discovered many unknown manuscripts. Polo, near the end of the Book (Bk. Marco Polo states that the basement of the great palace 'is raised some ten palms above the surrounding soil.' [153], The frequent flyer programme of Hong Kong flag carrier Cathay Pacific is known as the "Marco Polo Club". For instance, did Polo exert "political authority" (seignora) in Yangzhou or merely "sojourn" (sejourna) there. An illustration of an audio speaker. Polo, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian, 29. In fact, pasta had already been invented in Italy long time before Marco Polo's travels to Asia. His father, Niccolò Polo, a merchant, traded with the Near East, becoming wealthy and achieving great prestige. It came to pass in the year of Christ 1260, when Baldwin was reigning at Constantinople [controlled by Christian crusaders at the time] that Messer Nicolas Polo, the father of my lord Mark, and Messer Maffeo Polo, the brother of Messer … The British historian David Morgan thought that Polo had likely exaggerated and lied about his status in China,[122] while Ronald Latham believed that such exaggerations were embellishments by his ghostwriter Rustichello da Pisa.[84]. It is also largely free of the gross errors found in other accounts such as those given by the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta who had confused the Yellow River with the Grand Canal and other waterways, and believed that porcelain was made from coal. They note that the Great Wall familiar to us today is a Ming structure built some two centuries after Marco Polo's travels; and that the Mongol rulers whom Polo served controlled territories both north and south of today's wall, and would have no reasons to maintain any fortifications that may have remained there from the earlier dynasties. In his book, Marco mentions an official named "Mar Sarchis" who probably was a Nestorian Christian bishop, and he says he founded two Christian churches in the region of "Caigiu". [10][11][12] His father, Niccolò Polo, had his household in Venice and left Marco's mother pregnant in order to travel to Asia with his brother Maffeo Polo. The book of Marco Polo: book 2 (continued)-4. [136] Rachewiltz argued that Marco Polo's account, in fact, allows the Persian and Chinese sources to be reconciled – by relaying the information that two of the three envoys sent (mentioned in the Chinese source and whose names accord with those given by Polo) had died during the voyage, it explains why only the third who survived, Coja/Khoja, was mentioned by Rashìd al-Dìn. [48] Sometime before 1300, his father Niccolò died. [85], According to some recent research of the Italian scholar Antonio Montefusco, the very close relationship that Marco Polo cultivated with members of the Dominican Order in Venice suggests that local fathers collaborated with him for a Latin version of the book, which means that Rustichello's text was translated into Latin for a precise will of the Order. Polo traveled extensively with his family, journeying from Europe to Asia from 1271 to 1295 and remaining in China for 17 of those years. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKellogg2001 (, Maria Bellonci, "Nota introduttiva", Il Milione di Marco Polo, Milano, Oscar Mondadori, 2003, p. XI. [29], Marco Polo returned to Venice in 1295 with his fortune converted into gemstones. The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian: Author: Marco Polo: Publisher: Unknown: Release Date: 1903: Category: Asia: Total Pages: 86: ISBN: UOM:39076006502020: Language: English, … [113], In addition to Haw, a number of other scholars have argued in favour of the established view that Polo was in China in response to Wood's book. [123] According to the "Yuanshi" records, Boluo was released at the request of the emperor himself, and was then transferred to the region of Ningxia, in the northeast of present-day China, in the spring of 1275. A board game 'The Voyages of Marco Polo' plays over a map of Eurasia, with multiple routes to 'recreate' Polo's journey. Source: Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa, “Book Second, Part III, Chapter LXXXII: Of the City and Great Haven of Zayton” and “Book Third, Part I, Chapter VI: Concerning the Great Island of Java,” in The Book of Ser Marco Polo: The Venetian Concerning Kingdoms and Marvels of the East, translated and edited by Colonel Sir Henry Yule, Volume 2 (London: John Murray, 1903). Born in Venice, Marco learned the mercantile trade from his father and his uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan. [49] They had three daughters, Fantina (married Marco Bragadin), Bellela (married Bertuccio Querini), and Moreta. cxvii, no 2, 2011, p. 315-344", "Explorer Marco Polo 'never actually went to China", "Marco Polo was not a swindler – he really did go to China", "Marco Polo Did Go to China, New Research Shows (and the History of Paper)", "Marco Polo was not a swindler: He really did go to China", "Stock Photo - THE RED RED DRAGON, (aka MARCO POLO JR., aka MARCO POLO JUNIOR VERSUS THE RED DRAGON), US poster, 1972", "Chasing the Fugitive on Campus: Designing a Location-based Game for Collaborative Play", "Netflix's 'Marco Polo' Sets December Premiere Date", Marco Polo | Biography, Travels, & Influence, Marco Polo's house in Venice, near the church of San Giovanni Grisostomo, National Geographic Marco Polo: Journey from Venice to China, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marco_Polo&oldid=998089997, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2020, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Polo appears as a Great Explorer in the strategy video game. This claim has raised some controversy. ". Her book can only be described as deceptive, both in relation to the author and to the public at large. Morgan, in Polo's defence, noted that even the princess herself was not mentioned in the Chinese source and that it would have been surprising if Polo had been mentioned by Rashid-al-Din. [137] Haw dismisses the various anachronistic criticisms of Polo's accounts that started in the 17th century, and highlights Polo's accuracy in great part of his accounts, for example on the lay of the land such as the Grand Canal of China. This sentence in The Book of Marvels was interpreted as Marco Polo was "the governor" of the city of "Yangiu" Yangzhou for three years, and later of Hangzhou. During this meeting, Marco gave to Pietro details of the astronomical observations he had made on his journey. Therefore, this claim seems a subsequent addition to give more credibility to the story. [54] To write and certify the will, his family requested Giovanni Giustiniani, a priest of San Procolo. [33] In 1271, during the rule of Doge Lorenzo Tiepolo, Marco Polo (at seventeen years of age), his father, and his uncle set off for Asia on the series of adventures that Marco later documented in his book. Presenting Marco Polo as an important figure at the court of the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, the book was written in Old French by Rustichello da Pisa, a romance author of the time, who was reportedly working from accounts which he had heard from Marco Polo when they were imprisoned in Genoa, having been captured while on a ship. [128][125], Stephen G. Haw challenges this idea that Polo exaggerated his own importance, writing that, "contrary to what has often been said ... Marco does not claim any very exalted position for himself in the Yuan empire. ... 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